Psychohistory, the fictional science developed by Hari Seldon which combined history, sociology, and mathematical statistitics to create a (nearly) exact science of the actions of very large groups of people. The entire fate of the Galactic Empire rested upon those principles. You can learn more by reading Isaac Asimov's classic Foundation series, Foundation (Book/Audio), Foundation & Empire (Book/Audio), and Second Foundation (Book/Audio). As the years went by, Asimov expanded his Robots and Empires series to make them part of the same universe. Other authors have contributed to the series after Asimov's death.